La República de Perú (The Republic of Peru) is located on the Pacific coast of South America and is bordered by Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, and Chile. The population is 29,180,900 of which 45% are Amerindian, 37% are Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White), 15% are White, and the remainder are Black, Chinese, Japanese, and other races. It is the 4th most populous country in South America. The literacy rate is 87.7%. Spanish and Quechua are the official languages.
Civilization in present-day Perú can be traced back to 11,000 BC. The Norte Chico was a complex civilization that was in the area from 3,000 BC to 1800 BC. Until the 15th century, many different civilizations were in the area, until the Incas formed the largest pre-Columbian empire in the Americas. In 1532, Francisco Pizarro and other conquistadors from Spain defeated the Incas and, in 1542, Spain established the Viceroyalty of Perú. After many struggles and military campaigns lead by José de San Martin and Simón Bolívar during the early 19th century, Perú declared its independence from Spain on July 28, 1821, but it was not until 1824 that the Spanish were finally defeated.
Primary and Secondary Education
Education in Perú is overseen by the country's Ministerio de Educación and is free and compulsory from ages 5 - 16. 1 year of educación inicial beginning at age 5 is compulsory. Escuela primaria lasts 6 years, with no credential awarded at the end of primary school. Ciclo general is 2 years and no credential is awarded at the completion of general secondary school.
Following general secondary school, students have the option of continuing in vocational/technical or general upper secondary school programs. Vocational/technical programs are offered at escuelas superiores de educación professional. They are 3 years long and upon completion of studies, students are awarded a Diploma de Aptitud Profesional or a Bachiller Profesional. Ciclo diversicado (General upper secondary school) is 3 years and upon completion, students are awarded a Certificado de Educación Secundaria Común Completa, Bachillerato Académico, or a Bachillerato Técnico.
Post-secondary education is offered at universidades, centros superiores de posgrado, institutos superiores tecnológicos (IST), institutos superiores pedagógicos (ISP), and escuelas superiores.
First-level university programs are 4 to 6 years, depending on the program of study. Upon completion, students are awarded a Bachiller. After a further year of study, students may be awarded a Licenciado or a Título Profesional ; these credentials may be awarded concurrently with the Bachiller.
The Bachiller is an academic title, while the Licenciado and Título Profesional are both professional titles. In Peru, to serve in a professional capacity, one must complete additional steps to earn the requisite professional title, such as Economista, Ingeniero, Médico, or Abogado. To earn a professional title, one must meet additional requirements after earning the requisite Bachiller. Examples include comprehensive examinations, a thesis or a six-month internship with a report. A one-year work placement must also be completed in order to earn the Título Profesional de Abogado.
First Cycle, Vocational/Technical
Institutos superiores tecnológicos (IST) offer 3- to 4-year programs leading to the Profesional como Técnico de Nivel Medio, Profesional Técnico, and Título de Profesional en Técnicas de Ingeniería.
Second and Third Cycles
There are 2 types of graduate programs. Programs leading to the Especialista and the Magíster or Maestro are 2 years and require a Bachiller or Licenciado for admission. Doctoral programs are at least 2 years and lead to the Doctor or Doctorado. A Magíster or Maestro are required for admission. Students must successfully defend a dissertation before the Doctor or Doctorado is awarded.
Primary and secondary school teachers are trained in 4- to 5-year post-secondary programs leading to the Profesor de Educación Primaria (Primary School Teacher), Profesor de Educación Básica (Primary School Teacher), Bachiller en Educación (Bachelor of Education), Licenciado en Educación Básica Regular, or the Profesor de Educación Secundaria Técnica en la Especialidad en ….