République du Tchad, Jumhūriyyat Tshād (The Republic of Chad) is a land-locked country located in central Africa and is bordered by Libya, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger. The population is 10,111,337 and the
literacy rate is 25.7%. French and Arabic are the official languages, and more than 120 other languages and dialects are spoken. It is one of the poorest countries in Africa.
Civilization in present-day Chad can be traced back to the 7th century BC and has been a crossroads for many African civilizations. In 1920, the area became a colony of France known as French Equatorial Africa. On August 11, 1960, Chad was granted independence.
École élementaire (Primary School) is 6 years beginning at age 6. At the end of the sixth year, students are awarded a Certificat d'Études Primaires (CEP). This is the typical amount of education completed by children
Students must sit for an entrance examination Concours ďEntrée en Sixième for admission to lower secondary school. General lower secondary school is 4 years and leads to the Brevet d'Études du Premier Cycle (BEPC)
Collège Technique (Vocational/technical lower secondary school) is 3 years and leads to the Certificat d'Aptitude Professionnelle (CAP).
Lycée technique commercial/industriel (Vocational/technical upper secondary school) is 3 years. At the end of the 3rd year, students sit for an external examination leading to the Baccalauréat de Technicien. Lycée (General upper secondary school) is also 3 years, and, at the end of the 3rd year, students sit for an external examination leading to the Baccalauréat.
First Cycle, Academic
Post-secondary educational programs are offered at institutes, schools and 3 universities. Admission to first-level university programs requires a Baccalauréat. These programs are 2 years and lead to the Diplôme d'Études Universitaires Générales (DEUG) for students in the arts, humanities, law and management, and the Diplôme Universitaire d'Études Scientifiques (DUES) for science students.
Students can continue into a one-year program leading to the Licence followed by the 1 to 2-year Maîtrise.
First Cycle, Vocational/Technical
Technical/vocational programs are 2 years leading to the Brevet de Technicien Supérieur (BTS). Admission to these programs requires a Baccalauréat de Technicien or a Baccalauréat.
Second and Third Cycles
As of the 2006-07 academic year, the Université de N'Djaména began to transition to the Licence-Master-Doctor (LMD) system. DEUG and DUES programs have been eliminated and were replaced with a 4-year Licence and a 4-year Licence Professionelle that require a Baccalauréat for admission. Graduate programs include a one-year Maîtrise and Maîtrise Professionelle. Doctoral programs require 3 years of research
and, upon successful defense of a dissertation, students are awarded a Doctorat.
Primary school teachers are trained in a 3-year program at école normale ďinstituteurs (primary teacher training school) leading to the Diplôme ďInstituteur. Students who complete just the first 2 years of the program are awarded
a Diplôme ďInstituteur Adjoint. Admission to this program requires a Brevet d'Études du Premier Cycle (BEPC) for admission.
Lower secondary school teachers are trained in a 2-year program at the Institut Supérieur des Sciences de l'Éducation, N'Djaména (N'Djaména Higher Institute of Education Sciences) leading to the Certificat d'Aptitude Professionnelle de ľEnseignement aux Collèges ďEnseignement Général (CAPCEG) for Lower Secondary School Teaching. A Baccalauréat and an entrance examination are required for admission.
Upper secondary school teachers are trained in a 2-year course following a Certificat ďAptitude Professionnelle de ľEnseignement aux Collèges ďEnseignement Général (CAPCEG). Upon successful completion of the program, students
are awarded a Certificat ďAptitude Professionelle de ľEnseignement dans les Lycées (CAPEL). Students who hold a Licence can complete this program in 1 year.