Your bookmarked countries have an update since your last login. View Bookmarks x

May 24, 2021

"Imaginécole" an educational platform for 6.6 million French-speaking students in Africa

To strengthen education systems in the face of the Covid pandemic, the education ministers of 10 West and Central African countries (Benin, Togo, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, Niger, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Cameroon and Chad) gathered this Thursday to launch Imaginécole, a new collaborative online learning platform. A system piloted in particular by France.

Learn more »

May 18, 2021

Baccalaureate in Burkina Faso: What to remember from the current reforms

The 2021 baccalaureate session will be organized by the Bac Office housed within the Joseph KI-Zerbo University and it will have no changes, said the National Education and Higher Education. Baccalaureate holders were also reassured that they will be able to continue to register on the Campus Faso platform for the various orientations, as is currently the case for holders of the baccalaureate from Mali, Benin and Côte d'Ivoire who have always enrolled in universities.

Learn more »

ARCHIVED COUNTRY STUDY: (PDF)

There is 1 archived country study available. Log in to view them.

Mali

Overview

Mali ka Fasojamana/République du Mali (The Republic of Mali) is a large country (the size of Texas and California combined) and the homeland of some 12 million persons of diverse ethnic origins. Most work in agriculture, but the country's land potential is poorly realized. Though mineral resources are also thought extensive, they are largely undeveloped, and Mali remains one of the poorest countries on earth, with an average per capita income of $470 and a life expectancy of 47 years. The capital city of Bamako has about one million residents. French is the language of official business, but Bambara is the common social and market tongue of 80% of the population. Islam is the dominant (90%) religious faith.

Despite great economic and political challenges, Mali has enjoyed an unusual degree of multi-ethnic cooperation among Sub-Saharan countries and is well known for its rich cultural traditions. The Niger River is the common commercial and cultural axis for the people of the vast southern savannahs. Each ethnic group was traditionally tied to a specific occupation, all working within close proximity. In recent years, this linkage has shifted as groups seek nontraditional sources of income. The Tuaregs and Maurs, desert nomads of the north, have been more resistant to central government, often clashing with government forces until a peace agreement was reached in 1996.

Mali has long been an important if rugged crossroads, the seat of previous West African empires that controlled trade and were in contact with Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilizations. The Ghana Empire was a powerful trading state from 700 to about 1100 AD. For the next 500 years a series of kingdoms controlled the vast area from headquarters at Timbuktu, a center of commerce and Islam. In recent years Timbuktu has again made cultural news as the US and others have helped to preserve the historic manuscripts from those earlier eras.

French penetration of the area began around 1880. As a colony of French Soudan, Mali was administered with other colonial territories as the Federation of French West Africa. In 1958, after a French constitutional referendum, the Republique Soudanaise became a member of the French Community and received complete internal autonomy. The next year Soudan joined Senegal to form the Mali Federation, but it collapsed in 1960 when Senegal seceded and Soudan proclaimed itself the Republic of Mali and withdrew from the French Community. The 1960s saw political turbulence and severe drought. Further political experiments followed in the 1970s, sometimes generating violent resistance. The political situation stabilized somewhat in the 1980s, with efforts by the International Monetary Fund to give more structure to the Malian economy. But many felt the government was not genuinely representative, and the 1990s witnessed student demonstrations and military interventions, as Mali struggled to develop stable institutions. Peaceful national elections were held in 1997, 2002, and 2007.

Education

Education flourished at Timbuktu from the 13th to the 16th century, until an invasion from Morocco in 1591 led to the destruction of the learning center. From the 17th century to the colonization of Mali by France in the late 19th century, religious education in Arabic was all that remained.

Primary and Secondary Education

The academic year runs from October to July. The baccalauréat (secondary school leaving certificate) is required for admission into higher education.

Post-Secondary Education

During the colonial era higher education was non-existent in Mali. After achieving independence from France in 1960, Mali launched a series of educational reforms that continue to the present. The first government of independent Mali embarked on a massive schooling campaign at all educational levels. Specialized schools of higher education were established: the National School of Engineering (ENI); the École Normale Supérieure (ENSup), for the training of high school teachers and other professionals; the National School of Administration (ENA); the School of Medicine and pharmacy; and the Rural Polytechnic Institute (IPR).

Founded in 1993, the Université du Mali in Bamako (15,000 students) incorporated many of the initial higher education institutions, and now has faculties of medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry; sciences and technology; law and economics; and letters, languages, arts and humanities. Subsequently renamed the University of Bamako (2002), it also has institutes of management, agricultural training and applied research. The Institut supérieur de Formation et de Recherche appliquée (ISFRA) of the University offers postgraduate training.

Higher education is free, and students receive a living allowance. Student subsidies and scholarships represent 60% of the higher education budget, leaving few funds for instructional materials and scientific equipment. Instruction is largely by lecture.

Malian education inherited most of its principles and structure from the French colonial system and French remains the language of instruction. (English is taught in junior and senior high schools.)

The University of Bamako and its constituent institutions have been the only higher educational bodies in Mali since independence, but foreign and private education organizations are making some contributions. The University of Quebec at Montreal offers a master's degree in business administration. Michigan State (agriculture) and the University of Pennsylvania (archeology) have had collaborative programs with the U. of Bamako.


THE CONTRIBUTORS

BE A PART OF THE CONVERSATION. JOIN OUR LISTSERV. Subscribe

Upcoming AACRAO Events

On-Demand Learning

Self-Paced | Online

Self-paced courses aligned with our competency and proficiency framework, AACRAO's on-demand training will build your skills and enhance your resume. 

Courses in:

  • Compliance
  • FERPA
  • International
  • and more

Learn More

SEM_2020_1440x400 update

The International Institute

Rescheduled for Early October 2021 | Virtual Event

Replacing the Summer and Winter Institutes, the AACRAO International Institute covers promising practices for the evaluation of international credentials that combines AACRAO’s On-Demand International Series with five, two-hour, virtual instructor-led training sessions.

Learn More
240047_AACRAO_1440x400_LandingPg