Your bookmarked countries have an update since your last login. View Bookmarks x

Latest Country Updates
May 13, 2022

India CBSE issues warning against fake notice on term-wise weightage of marks

Candidates should remember that all notices regarding board exams and distribution of marks/weightage of different terms will only be issued through the official CBSE website.

Learn more »

May 5, 2022

India CMAT 2022: National Testing Agency announces exam date

The National Testing Agency (NTA) has announced the exam date for the Common Management Admission Test (CMAT 2022), which will be held in April 2022.

Learn more »

Apr 26, 2022

India Intermediate and SSC exams rescheduled

The State government has rescheduled Intermediate and SSC examinations in view of change in the schedule for Joint Entrance Exams (Main) conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA).

Learn more »

Nov 23, 2021

CBSE divides 2021-22 academic year into two terms

With continuing school closures and examination disruptions due to COVID-19, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has issued a new assessment scheme for Class 10 and 12 students this year.

Learn more »

Nov 23, 2021

Schools Reopen in India Even as Another COVID Wave Looms

More students in India will be able to step inside a classroom for the first time in nearly 18 months Wednesday, as authorities gave the green light to partially reopen more schools despite apprehension from some parents and signs that infections are picking up again.

Learn more »

Aug 31, 2021

CBSE asks schools to complete moderation of Class 12 marks in time-bound manner

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) directed schools affiliated to complete tabulation and moderation of marks for class 12 students in a time-bound manner so that the result can be declared by July 31.

Learn more »

Jul 2, 2021

Status list of Class 12 examinations of various states of India

Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that the government has decided to cancel the CBSE 12th examination due to the prevailing Covid-19 situation. Following the CBSE, many states have called off the class 12 examinations.

Learn more »

Jun 1, 2021

India CBSE Board Class XII Exams Cancelled, Results on “Well Defined Criteria”

Final decision on the conduction of the Class 12 board exam 2021 amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is likely to be delayed as Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank was admitted to AIIMS due to post coronavirus complications.

Learn more »

May 28, 2021

CBSE Class 12 Hindi Syllabus 2020-21 Reduced

Due to COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing CBSE Academic Session 2020-21 has been hampered and this is the reason why CBSE has reduced the new CBSE Syllabus 2020-21 by 30%. Students of CBSE Class XII having Hindi (Core) as one of their subjects need to thoroughly study the changed syllabus & then prepare for the exam accordingly.

Learn more »

May 26, 2021

New NEP will ensure equality and quality in education sector

Teaching up to class 5 in mother tongue or regional language, lowering the stakes of board exams, a single regulator for higher education institutions except for law and medical colleges, and common entrance tests for universities are part of the new National Education Policy (NEP).

Learn more »

May 25, 2021

Court restrains varsities from declaring ‘all pass’ without exams

The Madras High Court issued an interim injunction forbearing all universities in the State from declaring all students as having passed, with respect to arrears too, without conducting examinations, either through the online or the offline mode, or a combination of both.

Learn more »

May 19, 2021

Education Minister announces schedule for CBSE Class 10, 12 exams

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) announced on Tuesday the schedule for Classes 10 and 12 board exams, which will begin on May 4. The exams for Class 10 will conclude on June 7, while those for Class 12 will conclude on June 10.

Learn more »

May 5, 2021

International Baccalaureate cancels exams in India

The International Baccalaureate (IB) cancelled its examinations across the country following a surge in COVID-19 cases. According to the board, India will follow the non-examination route for the diploma programme, the career-related programme and the alternative task for the middle years programme. 

Learn more »

May 3, 2021

CLAT 2021 Exam Postponed to June to avoid clash with CBSE Exam

Consortium of National Law Universities has decided to postpone the CLAT 2021 Exam to June 2021. The law entrance exam has been postponed to avoid clash with CBSE Board Exam, which is now scheduled to be held in May 2021.

Learn more »

Apr 21, 2021

SSC, HSC exams to be held offline this year in Maharashtra

The Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) board examinations will be conducted offline this year by maintaining COVID-19 standard operating procedures. The exams cannot be conducted via online mode because there are many students who do not have access to internet, WiFi connection, adequate power supply, computer and smartphones

Learn more »

Apr 15, 2021

Karnataka SSLC and PUC Exams 2021 Postponed until May and June

Karnataka State Primary and Secondary Education Minister has confirmed that the SSLC Exam 2021 for Class 10 and PUC Exam 2021 for Class 12 students have been postponed and will not be held in March. This year, Karnataka SSLC 2021 would be conducted in first week of June while Karnataka PUC would be conducted in May 2021.

Learn more »

Apr 13, 2021

West Bengal announces dates for Class 10, 12 board examinations in 2021

Due to the global coronavirus outbreak and the resulting lockdown in the country, the West Bengal government had postponed the examinations, which are usually held between February and March every year. West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education announces the secondary education board exams will start on June 1 and the higher secondary education board exams will be held from June 15, 2021.

Learn more »

Apr 9, 2021

West Bengal schools not to reopen till pandemic situation improves

The West Bengal government is not mulling over changes in its stated position of not starting classes in schools till the coronavirus pandemic situation improves. School curriculum in secondary and plus-two levels would be curtailed and classes would be conducted online

Learn more »

Mar 17, 2021

CBSE Board Exams 2021 Schedule

CBSE Board exam will begin from May 4 and conclude till June 10. Results will be declared by July 15. Practical exams will begin from March 1, the minister said.

Learn more »

Mar 8, 2021

CBSE Board Exam 2021 date postponed due to current Covid situation

CBSE has said that it is not possible to conduct examinations in January and February 2021.

Learn more »


There are 4 archived country studies available. Log in to view them.




The Indian education system is based on the British system for the most part and is a joint responsibility of state and federal government. The organization and structure of education is largely the responsibility of the state government; federal government plays its role by making sure the quality and character of education is maintained at the highest level. India's higher education system is guided by the Department of Higher Education.

Free and compulsory education is guaranteed to citizens through the age of fourteen. The system of education in India consists of three streams: (i) the school stream, (ii) the university (including the college) stream and (iii) the non-university stream.

Primary and Secondary Education

The school stream consists of pre-primary, primary and secondary education. The minimum age requirement to start primary classes is six years (though there are exceptions and some children start at five and one-half years). Children attend through grades seven or eight.

The secondary level is divided in two parts: (a) secondary, including the eighth through tenth years of education and (b) higher secondary, concluding with completion of twelfth grade and also known as junior college, intermediate certificate and senior or higher secondary certificate. The examinations given upon the completion of these two levels are considered public examinations and are conducted by the state boards or by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Alternatively, the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) provides secondary and higher secondary education through distance learning and conducts public examinations at tenth and twelfth grade, considered equivalent to state and central board examinations.

Post-Secondary Education

Entry into university generally requires an admission test. Each state conducts its own entrance tests known by different names, especially for professional and first technical degree programs. Some of the commonly seen ones are Combined Admission Test (CAT), Joint Entrance Examination (JEE), Joint Admission Test (JAT) and All-India Admissions Test. Tests address either individual subjects or a group of subjects (engineering, sciences, agricultural, medical, etc.).

The Association of Indian Universities (AIU) is an umbrella organization bringing university administrators and academicians from across India together to exchange views and discuss educational issues. The AIU's objectives include coordinating the work of universities, establishing equivalence of degrees between Indian and foreign universities and helping universities obtain recognition for degrees, diplomas and examinations within India. Establishing and approving equivalencies for foreign educational experience is another key responsibility of the AIU.

An important aspect of the Indian educational system is the role of authorities established by statute for the regulation and maintenance of uniform standards of education and training in professional subjects. Prior approval from these authorities is essential for starting new institutions, introduction of new courses and fixing the intake capacity in each course. Some of the regulatory authorities include the Central Board of Secondary Education; Council for Indian School Certificate Examinations; State Secondary and Technical Boards; University Grants Commission (UGC); Association of Indian Universities (AIU); and the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). In the area of professional education there are many such regulatory bodies, including the Institute of Charted Accountants of India (ICAI); Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI); Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI); All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE); Medical Education Council of India; and National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE). These professional councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants and awards to undergraduate programs.

Professional associations in India are similar in structure to those in the United Kingdom. Associations award a variety of qualifications, including levels of membership, diplomas and postgraduate diplomas that are comparable to levels of educational attainment in the United States. Several associations have been reviewed for accreditation by the All India Council of Technical Education and more are under review, however, it is not necessary for programs to have AICTE accreditation to be considered for US equivalency.

As with most countries which base their education system on the British education system, India offers not only traditional academic degrees, but numerous certificates, diplomas, and other academic and professional qualifications. Some of these professional credentials are awarded by recognized academic institutions, while others are awarded by professional bodies or professional societies; primarily in accounting, computer science, engineering and management. Some professional body awards are recognized as counterpart academic credentials earned outside the academic arena and entitle the holder to the next level of education in the traditional "educational ladder." Others entitle the holder to practice as a professional in a particular profession, similar to the way in which doctors, lawyers and CPAs receive their license to practice in the United States. That is, the license/permission to practice is based on an external examination. At last count, there were more than 80 such qualifications offered by Indian professional associations and professional societies. When these qualifications have a US counterpart, we have included credential advice for them in EDGE.

However, there are many qualifications in India which have no US counterpart, and therefore no specific credential advice is offered. These include qualifications awarded by entities such as the National Institute of Information Technology (NIIT) and APTECH Computer Education (Apple Technologies). The range of programs offered by NIIT and APTECH ranges from two postsecondary semesters to three postgraduate years, and the entrance requirements range from the Grade XII Certificate to specific master's degrees. These are esoteric professional development qualifications used for purposes of employment and promotion in India. Academic admission to US institutions should therefore be based on other credentials. And, because of the highly specialized nature of these programs, syllabi should be carefully reviewed when considering the awarding of transfer credit. For further information on credentials offered by Indian professional associations and professional societies, consult the 1997 AACRAO/NAFSA PIER World Education Series Report (click on the appropriate year following the Archived Country Study (pdf) icon at the top of this page).

First, Second, and Third Cycle, Academic

The university stream: higher or tertiary level education is provided by universities and a network of colleges. The universities are established by state and federal acts. There are approximately 330 recognized universities currently operating in India, including central universities, state universities, deemed universities and Institutions of National Importance. The University Grants Commission (UGC) under the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, is the apex body that oversees standards of teaching, examinations and research in universities. The UGC is also responsible for attending to financial needs of universities and colleges by allocating and disbursing grants.

Please reference the Credentials tab within India's page on EDGE to learn about the diversity of degrees and education pathways available in India at the Post-Secondary academic and tertiary levels.

First, Second, and Third Cycle, Vocational/Technical

Non-university education both in traditional and professional subjects is provided through distance education, correspondence courses, technical institutes, polytechnics, vocational training institutes, specialized professional training institutions and by professional societies and institutions.



Upcoming AACRAO Events

On-Demand Learning

Self-Paced | Online

Self-paced courses aligned with our competency and proficiency framework, AACRAO's on-demand training will build your skills and enhance your resume. 

Courses in:

  • Compliance
  • International
  • and more

Learn More

SEM_2020_1440x400 update

The International Institute

Rescheduled for Early October 2021 | Virtual Event

Replacing the Summer and Winter Institutes, the AACRAO International Institute covers promising practices for the evaluation of international credentials that combines AACRAO’s On-Demand International Series with five, two-hour, virtual instructor-led training sessions.

Learn More