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May 3, 2024

Education Minister on board exams for students of classes 5,8 and 9

Minister for School Education Madhu Bangarappa said the board exams were introduced for the students of classes 5, 8, and 9, only after taking expert opinions.

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Apr 12, 2024

SSC, HSC exam fee to be refunded to drought-hit pupils

The state board has decided to refund the examination fees of students appearing for the ongoing HSC and SSC exams from drought-affected talukas in Maharashtra.

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Apr 10, 2024

Odisha Students To Get Digital Certificates 7 Days After Declaration Of HSC Exam Results

The Board of Secondary Education (BSE) in Odisha has announced a significant update for candidates who recently took the High School Certificate (HSC) examinations

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Apr 1, 2024

2024 HSC exams: Rise in cheating cases as compared to last year

The Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education’s (MSBSHSE) strict measures to curb malpractices during the Class 12 Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) examinations seem to have failed to score desired results as the number of cheating cases has increased this year as compared to 2023.

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Mar 1, 2024

Maharashtra Board Exams 2024: MSBSHSE Revises SSC

The class 10 board exams will start on March 1 and run through March 26. The HSC class 12 board exam for 2024 is scheduled to begin on February 21 and conclude on March 19.

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Feb 28, 2024

Class 12 exams begin, even as teachers threaten to boycott HSC exam evaluation

The Class 12 examination conducted by the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education commenced on Wednesday, however, many teachers have vowed to boycott the Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) written examination paper evaluation.

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Feb 22, 2024

Maharashtra State board changes practical exam format for SSC, HSC exams

According to the circular issued on the website by Anuradha Oak, secretary of the state board, teachers and principals of schools and junior colleges have to fill marks for the examinations to be held in February-March 2024 online

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Jan 24, 2024

CBSE Board Exam 2024: No overall division or aggregate marks will be awarded for 10th & 12th exams

CBSE clarifies the criteria for calculating Class X and XII students' percentages in response to inquiries.

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Jan 24, 2024

Twice-a-year CBSE boards from 2024-25 session

Students who commence their class X and XII from the 2024-25 academic session will be the first batch to get the opportunity to sit for the multiple board format.

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Nov 3, 2023

CBSE releases Class 10 and 12 practical exam dates for 2024

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has announced the practical examination dates for Classes 10 and 12. Candidates preparing for these exams can find the official notification on CBSE's website at

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Oct 19, 2023

CBSE announces registration guidelines for students appearing Class 10, 12 exams in next academic session

CBSE Board Exams 2024: The schools and their principals must also ensure that the students are eligible for admission to in Classes 9 and 11 and will appear in Class 10 and Class 12 board exams in subsequent exams.

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Oct 13, 2023

CBSE Board Exams to be conducted twice a year, Class 11, 12 students to study 2 languages

According to ministry officials, the curriculum, as per the New Education Policy (NEP), is ready and textbooks will be developed on its basis for the 2024 academic session.

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Oct 2, 2023

MSDE of India and Australian Government explore advanced health workforce training pathways

With increased focus to meet the demand for skilled workforce globally, Secretary MSDE highlighted that the assessment cost is one of the key areas which needs to be addressed by Australia and fast-track the process of citizenship for these health sector workers in Australia.

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Sep 4, 2023

In India, CBSE sets 3-year deadline to limit student numbers to 40 per class

Five years after it had first set a ceiling on the maximum number of students that each class can have, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has set a three-year deadline for schools to comply with the board's 40-students-per-class rule.

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Aug 15, 2023

CBSE Board Exams For Classes 10 And 12 To Begin From February 15 Next Year

The Ministry of Education has decided to announce exam schedules much in advance to sync the academic calendar and help students prepare for entrance exams.

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Aug 11, 2023

CBSE announces re-evaluation results for Class 10th and 12th

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released the re-evaluation and verification results for classes 10th and 12th. Students who were not satisfied with their marks in the CBSE Class 10, 12 exams can now check their re-evaluation and verification results on the official CBSE website.

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Aug 11, 2023

CBSE Class 10 Supplementary Results 2023: Over 1.27 lakh students appeared, pass percentage at 47.40%

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) today declared the Class 10 supplementary exam results. Students who appeared for the exam can check their results at the official website— or

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Jul 28, 2023

India HSC exam to be held from February 20 to March 4 next year

While examinees will have to fill up form for the examination in October 2023, other details of the programme would be notified later.

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Jun 8, 2023

Maharashtra SSC & HSC Exam Results Expected

Maharashtra State Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education will soon release the Maharashtra SSC and HSC Results 2023 soon. As per latest reports, the results for Class 10 and 12 is expected to be released in the month of June 2023. Once the results or result date is confirmed, the same will be added here.

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May 24, 2023

CBSE Released Date Sheets For Class 10 And 12 Examinations

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) announced the board exam dates much in advance for Class 10 and 12 examinations so that students can well prepare for their examinations. As per the timetable, the exams are set to commence on February 15, 2023, for both classes.

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There are 4 archived country studies available. Log in to view them.




The Indian education system is based on the British system for the most part and is a joint responsibility of state and federal government. The organization and structure of education is largely the responsibility of the state government; federal government plays its role by making sure the quality and character of education is maintained at the highest level. India's higher education system is guided by the Department of Higher Education.

Free and compulsory education is guaranteed to citizens through the age of fourteen. The system of education in India consists of three streams: (i) the school stream, (ii) the university (including the college) stream and (iii) the non-university stream.

Primary and Secondary Education

The school stream consists of pre-primary, primary and secondary education. The minimum age requirement to start primary classes is six years (though there are exceptions and some children start at five and one-half years). Children attend through grades seven or eight.

The secondary level is divided in two parts: (a) secondary, including the eighth through tenth years of education and (b) higher secondary, concluding with completion of twelfth grade and also known as junior college, intermediate certificate and senior or higher secondary certificate. The examinations given upon the completion of these two levels are considered public examinations and are conducted by the state boards or by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Alternatively, the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) provides secondary and higher secondary education through distance learning and conducts public examinations at tenth and twelfth grade, considered equivalent to state and central board examinations.

Post-Secondary Education

Entry into university generally requires an admission test. Each state conducts its own entrance tests known by different names, especially for professional and first technical degree programs. Some of the commonly seen ones are Combined Admission Test (CAT), Joint Entrance Examination (JEE), Joint Admission Test (JAT) and All-India Admissions Test. Tests address either individual subjects or a group of subjects (engineering, sciences, agricultural, medical, etc.).

The Association of Indian Universities (AIU) is an umbrella organization bringing university administrators and academicians from across India together to exchange views and discuss educational issues. The AIU's objectives include coordinating the work of universities, establishing equivalence of degrees between Indian and foreign universities and helping universities obtain recognition for degrees, diplomas and examinations within India. Establishing and approving equivalencies for foreign educational experience is another key responsibility of the AIU.

An important aspect of the Indian educational system is the role of authorities established by statute for the regulation and maintenance of uniform standards of education and training in professional subjects. Prior approval from these authorities is essential for starting new institutions, introduction of new courses and fixing the intake capacity in each course. Some of the regulatory authorities include the Central Board of Secondary Education; Council for Indian School Certificate Examinations; State Secondary and Technical Boards; University Grants Commission (UGC); Association of Indian Universities (AIU); and the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). In the area of professional education there are many such regulatory bodies, including the Institute of Charted Accountants of India (ICAI); Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI); Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI); All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE); Medical Education Council of India; and National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE). These professional councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants and awards to undergraduate programs.

Professional associations in India are similar in structure to those in the United Kingdom. Associations award a variety of qualifications, including levels of membership, diplomas and postgraduate diplomas that are comparable to levels of educational attainment in the United States. Several associations have been reviewed for accreditation by the All India Council of Technical Education and more are under review, however, it is not necessary for programs to have AICTE accreditation to be considered for US equivalency.

As with most countries which base their education system on the British education system, India offers not only traditional academic degrees, but numerous certificates, diplomas, and other academic and professional qualifications. Some of these professional credentials are awarded by recognized academic institutions, while others are awarded by professional bodies or professional societies; primarily in accounting, computer science, engineering and management. Some professional body awards are recognized as counterpart academic credentials earned outside the academic arena and entitle the holder to the next level of education in the traditional "educational ladder." Others entitle the holder to practice as a professional in a particular profession, similar to the way in which doctors, lawyers and CPAs receive their license to practice in the United States. That is, the license/permission to practice is based on an external examination. At last count, there were more than 80 such qualifications offered by Indian professional associations and professional societies. When these qualifications have a US counterpart, we have included credential advice for them in EDGE.

However, there are many qualifications in India which have no US counterpart, and therefore no specific credential advice is offered. These include qualifications awarded by entities such as the National Institute of Information Technology (NIIT) and APTECH Computer Education (Apple Technologies). The range of programs offered by NIIT and APTECH ranges from two postsecondary semesters to three postgraduate years, and the entrance requirements range from the Grade XII Certificate to specific master's degrees. These are esoteric professional development qualifications used for purposes of employment and promotion in India. Academic admission to US institutions should therefore be based on other credentials. And, because of the highly specialized nature of these programs, syllabi should be carefully reviewed when considering the awarding of transfer credit. For further information on credentials offered by Indian professional associations and professional societies, consult the 1997 AACRAO/NAFSA PIER World Education Series Report (click on the appropriate year following the Archived Country Study (pdf) icon at the top of this page).

First, Second, and Third Cycle, Academic

The university stream: higher or tertiary level education is provided by universities and a network of colleges. The universities are established by state and federal acts. There are approximately 330 recognized universities currently operating in India, including central universities, state universities, deemed universities and Institutions of National Importance. The University Grants Commission (UGC) under the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, is the apex body that oversees standards of teaching, examinations and research in universities. The UGC is also responsible for attending to financial needs of universities and colleges by allocating and disbursing grants.

Please reference the Credentials tab within India's page on EDGE to learn about the diversity of degrees and education pathways available in India at the Post-Secondary academic and tertiary levels.

In recent years there have been an increase in ‘dual’ and ‘integrated’ degrees in India. This relates to duals degrees within one Indian institution only and not between universities within India or outside of India. A dual degree (or double degree) means that an individual can complete two different degrees, awarded at the same time. These are generally 5 years in length. The University Grants Commission defines a Dual Degree where one institution awards two separate degrees, even if in the same field of study. The following are examples of such dual degree programs. NOTE: Admission to the program is Standard XII.

  • Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) + Master of Technology (M.Tech)
  • Bachelor of Engineering (BE) + Master of Engineering (ME)
  • B.Tech/BE + Master of Science (MS)
  • B.Tech/BE + Master of Business Administration (MBA)
  • Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) + Master of Science (M.Sc)
  • Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) + Bachelor of Business Economics (BBE)
  • Bachelor of Arts in English (BA Honours) + Bachelor of Arts in Journalism (BA Honours)
  • Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) + Master of Business Administration (MBA)
  • Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) + Bachelor of Laws (LLB)
  • Bachelor of Arts (BA) + Bachelor of Laws (LLB)

There are also 5-year M.Tech/MS degrees, usually in one field of study. Most, but not all, universities list them as ‘undergraduate’ degrees in India, and the student can pursue another degree of <i>master</i> (1 ½ – 2 years in length). They cannot be admitted to a PhD program in India with only the 5-year first degree.

A dual degree can also be an ‘integrated degree’. In this case, these is often an undergraduate and a post-graduate degree - such as a Master of Arts/Science/Commerce or Post-Graduate Diploma, where a 3-year Indian degree is the requirement for admission). Admission to these programs are at the same time, only require completion of Standard XII and take less time to complete. In general, the two degrees are in a similar, but not necessarily, the same, field of study. For example, a Bachelor of Technology in computer science and Master of Technology in cyber security or a Master of Arts in art history (5-year program, one degree awarded).

Of course, with numerous postsecondary level universities and institutions in India, there are always exceptions to the rule. Recommendation is to always check the admission requirement to the degree program, length of the degree program, and most importantly what is the next level of education the holder of a dual/integrated degree may pursue.

First, Second, and Third Cycle, Vocational/Technical

Non-university education both in traditional and professional subjects is provided through distance education, correspondence courses, technical institutes, polytechnics, vocational training institutes, specialized professional training institutions and by professional societies and institutions.



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