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Apr 21, 2021

SSC, HSC exams to be held offline this year in Maharashtra

The Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) board examinations will be conducted offline this year by maintaining COVID-19 standard operating procedures. The exams cannot be conducted via online mode because there are many students who do not have access to internet, WiFi connection, adequate power supply, computer and smartphones

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Apr 15, 2021

Karnataka SSLC and PUC Exams 2021 Postponed until May and June

Karnataka State Primary and Secondary Education Minister has confirmed that the SSLC Exam 2021 for Class 10 and PUC Exam 2021 for Class 12 students have been postponed and will not be held in March. This year, Karnataka SSLC 2021 would be conducted in first week of June while Karnataka PUC would be conducted in May 2021.

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Apr 13, 2021

West Bengal announces dates for Class 10, 12 board examinations in 2021

Due to the global coronavirus outbreak and the resulting lockdown in the country, the West Bengal government had postponed the examinations, which are usually held between February and March every year. West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education announces the secondary education board exams will start on June 1 and the higher secondary education board exams will be held from June 15, 2021.

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Apr 9, 2021

West Bengal schools not to reopen till pandemic situation improves

The West Bengal government is not mulling over changes in its stated position of not starting classes in schools till the coronavirus pandemic situation improves. School curriculum in secondary and plus-two levels would be curtailed and classes would be conducted online

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Mar 17, 2021

CBSE Board Exams 2021 Schedule

CBSE Board exam will begin from May 4 and conclude till June 10. Results will be declared by July 15. Practical exams will begin from March 1, the minister said.

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Mar 8, 2021

CBSE Board Exam 2021 date postponed due to current Covid situation

CBSE has said that it is not possible to conduct examinations in January and February 2021.

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Feb 23, 2021

JEE Main 2021 to be held from February 23-26

According to the minister, the National Testing Agency (NTA) will conduct the JEE Mains 2021 examination four times, in February, March, April and May, 2021.

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Feb 16, 2021

SSC and HSC exams will be conducted offline

In Maharashtra, Education minister Varsha Gaikwad stated that it is not possible to change the pattern of the HSC and SSC exams and the exams will be conducted in offline mode. Several other states in India have been following suit as other exams changes for CBSE are being implemented nationally.

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Dec 29, 2020

Three months after CBSE results, class 10 students yet to get marksheets

Students are still waiting for their result marksheets from the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). This has caused many delays for students in their college admission process.

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Dec 28, 2020

JEE Advanced 2020: Delhi HC dismisses plea demanding re-exam for left out candidates

The Delhi High Court has dismissed the plea of students who were seeking a re-examination for the JEE Advanced 2020. This comes after many exam candidates were not allowed to attempt the entrance test due to their COVID-19 positive status.

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Dec 25, 2020

Delhi schools to remain closed till further order

Manish Sisodia has announced that the schools in the capital Delhi will not reopen until further order in view of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. Lockdown will strictly continue till November 20 in containment zones.

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Dec 23, 2020

NEET 2020 Re-Exam Over

Students who could not take the medical entrance test in September due to reasons associated with COVID-19 were allowed to retake the NEET 2020.

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Dec 22, 2020

Punjab government likely to reopen schools for grades 9-12 for three hours a day

The Department of Education in Punjab is considering reopening schools in the state for students of classes 9 to 12 for only three hours a day.

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Dec 21, 2020

UGC Guidelines: Odd semester classes likely to begin from November 18 for session 2020-21

University Grants Commission (UGC) has recently released a notice that classes for odd semesters will most likely start from November 18. In addition, universities have to conduct classes for 6 days in one week this semester to make up for the academic loss due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

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Nov 23, 2020

Education Minister Answers Questions on NEP 2020

With the new National Education Policy, many students are expressing doubts with the new curriculum. The Education Minister explains in further detail what the new structure of school curriculum means and what will happen to board exams.

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Nov 9, 2020

NEP will sow seeds for starting a new era, give new direction to 21st-century India

Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that India would complete 75 years of Independence in 2022, students should be learning as per the New Education Policy (NEP) 2020. Students would learn under a curricular that is forward-looking and scientifically oriented in order to make the country ready for challenges in the 21st century.

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Oct 12, 2020

India NEET, JEE exams: 'Conducting these exams will be a giant mistake'

Many students want the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) and the Joint Entrance Exam (JEE), scheduled for September, to be postponed due to fears over rising Covid-19 cases.

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Aug 14, 2020

Expanding Indian Higher Education

India’s plans to completely overhaul its higher education system for the first time in 34 years and to open it to international branch campuses have been hailed as impressive by observers. The National Education Policy (NEP), approved after 12 months of public consultation, sets out a 20-year blueprint to nearly double higher education capacity.

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Aug 14, 2020

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) to conduct compartment exams

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has said that it that it will not cancel their CBSE compartment exams for 10th and 12th with thoughts that it will adversely affect candidates.

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There are 4 archived country studies available. Log in to view them.




The Indian education system is based on the British system for the most part and is a joint responsibility of state and federal government. The organization and structure of education is largely the responsibility of the state government; federal government plays its role by making sure the quality and character of education is maintained at the highest level. India's higher education system is guided by the Department of Higher Education.

Free and compulsory education is guaranteed to citizens through the age of fourteen. The system of education in India consists of three streams: (i) the school stream, (ii) the university (including the college) stream and (iii) the non-university stream.

Primary and Secondary Education

The school stream consists of pre-primary, primary and secondary education. The minimum age requirement to start primary classes is six years (though there are exceptions and some children start at five and one-half years). Children attend through grades seven or eight.

The secondary level is divided in two parts: (a) secondary, including the eighth through tenth years of education and (b) higher secondary, concluding with completion of twelfth grade and also known as junior college, intermediate certificate and senior or higher secondary certificate. The examinations given upon the completion of these two levels are considered public examinations and are conducted by the state boards or by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Alternatively, the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) provides secondary and higher secondary education through distance learning and conducts public examinations at tenth and twelfth grade, considered equivalent to state and central board examinations.

Post-Secondary Education

Entry into university generally requires an admission test. Each state conducts its own entrance tests known by different names, especially for professional and first technical degree programs. Some of the commonly seen ones are Combined Admission Test (CAT), Joint Entrance Examination (JEE), Joint Admission Test (JAT) and All-India Admissions Test. Tests address either individual subjects or a group of subjects (engineering, sciences, agricultural, medical, etc.).

The Association of Indian Universities (AIU) is an umbrella organization bringing university administrators and academicians from across India together to exchange views and discuss educational issues. The AIU's objectives include coordinating the work of universities, establishing equivalence of degrees between Indian and foreign universities and helping universities obtain recognition for degrees, diplomas and examinations within India. Establishing and approving equivalencies for foreign educational experience is another key responsibility of the AIU.

An important aspect of the Indian educational system is the role of authorities established by statute for the regulation and maintenance of uniform standards of education and training in professional subjects. Prior approval from these authorities is essential for starting new institutions, introduction of new courses and fixing the intake capacity in each course. Some of the regulatory authorities include the Central Board of Secondary Education; Council for Indian School Certificate Examinations; State Secondary and Technical Boards; University Grants Commission (UGC); Association of Indian Universities (AIU); and the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). In the area of professional education there are many such regulatory bodies, including the Institute of Charted Accountants of India (ICAI); Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI); Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI); All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE); Medical Education Council of India; and National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE). These professional councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants and awards to undergraduate programs.

Professional associations in India are similar in structure to those in the United Kingdom. Associations award a variety of qualifications, including levels of membership, diplomas and postgraduate diplomas that are comparable to levels of educational attainment in the United States. Several associations have been reviewed for accreditation by the All India Council of Technical Education and more are under review, however, it is not necessary for programs to have AICTE accreditation to be considered for US equivalency.

As with most countries which base their education system on the British education system, India offers not only traditional academic degrees, but numerous certificates, diplomas, and other academic and professional qualifications. Some of these professional credentials are awarded by recognized academic institutions, while others are awarded by professional bodies or professional societies; primarily in accounting, computer science, engineering and management. Some professional body awards are recognized as counterpart academic credentials earned outside the academic arena and entitle the holder to the next level of education in the traditional "educational ladder." Others entitle the holder to practice as a professional in a particular profession, similar to the way in which doctors, lawyers and CPAs receive their license to practice in the United States. That is, the license/permission to practice is based on an external examination. At last count, there were more than 80 such qualifications offered by Indian professional associations and professional societies. When these qualifications have a US counterpart, we have included credential advice for them in EDGE.

However, there are many qualifications in India which have no US counterpart, and therefore no specific credential advice is offered. These include qualifications awarded by entities such as the National Institute of Information Technology (NIIT) and APTECH Computer Education (Apple Technologies). The range of programs offered by NIIT and APTECH ranges from two postsecondary semesters to three postgraduate years, and the entrance requirements range from the Grade XII Certificate to specific master's degrees. These are esoteric professional development qualifications used for purposes of employment and promotion in India. Academic admission to US institutions should therefore be based on other credentials. And, because of the highly specialized nature of these programs, syllabi should be carefully reviewed when considering the awarding of transfer credit. For further information on credentials offered by Indian professional associations and professional societies, consult the 1997 AACRAO/NAFSA PIER World Education Series Report (click on the appropriate year following the Archived Country Study (pdf) icon at the top of this page).

First, Second, and Third Cycle, Academic

The university stream: higher or tertiary level education is provided by universities and a network of colleges. The universities are established by state and federal acts. There are approximately 330 recognized universities currently operating in India, including central universities, state universities, deemed universities and Institutions of National Importance. The University Grants Commission (UGC) under the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, is the apex body that oversees standards of teaching, examinations and research in universities. The UGC is also responsible for attending to financial needs of universities and colleges by allocating and disbursing grants.

Please reference the Credentials tab within India's page on EDGE to learn about the diversity of degrees and education pathways available in India at the Post-Secondary academic and tertiary levels.

First, Second, and Third Cycle, Vocational/Technical

Non-university education both in traditional and professional subjects is provided through distance education, correspondence courses, technical institutes, polytechnics, vocational training institutes, specialized professional training institutions and by professional societies and institutions.



Upcoming AACRAO Events

Crises as Catalysts for Transformation

Fall 2020 | virtual conference

Join us this fall for a virtual Strategic Enrollment Management Conference - Crises as Catalysts for Transformation: 2020’s Impact on Higher Education and Enrollment.

This three day, virtual conference will feature models for adapting to change, meeting challenges, and planning strategically post-pandemic.

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106th AACRAO Annual Meeting

March 28 - 31, 2021 | National Harbor, MD

AACRAO’s Annual Meeting is our largest convening of higher education professionals from around the world. Join more than 2,000 administrators in person or online as we work to address the issues facing today’s campuses, share goals and guidelines for meeting those challenges, and provide a forum for learning and sharing experiences.

Explore the Annual Meeting