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Sep 18, 2020

Canadian Medical Students Demand Change After ‘Inhumane’ Exam Conditions

Graduating medical school students are required to take part one of the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Exam (MCCQE) at some point during their first year of residency. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, students will now have to take the exam online which has resulted in several difficulties.

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Sep 4, 2020

School Reopening Plans, Province By Province

As schools resume across Canada in September, changes are being implemented province by province to protect students and teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Prime Minister announced $2 billion in support for provinces and territories to ensure the safety of students and staff members throughout the school year.

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Sep 4, 2020

COVID-19 and changes to postgraduate medical education in Canada

Postgraduate medical education in Canada drastically changed due to COVID-19. This article identifies key issues that medical schools and residents face in this new paradigm of medical education.

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ARCHIVED COUNTRY STUDY: (PDF)

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Canada: Saskatchewan

Overview

Located in North America, Canada is comprised of ten provinces and three territories. It is the world's second largest country in geographic size, yet its population is over 32,805,000 - slightly less than that of California. In terms of its natural resources, Canada is the world's second richest country on a per-capita basis, behind Australia.

Most of the population lives in the southern part of the country, and over 75 percent live in metropolitan areas. Among the largest cities are: Toronto, Ontario; Montréal, Québec; Vancouver, British Columbia; Ottawa, Ontario; Hull, Québec; and Edmonton, Alberta.

Canada's indigenous population is referred to as the Indians or First Nations. In fact, Canada is an Iroquis word for "community." French and English are the country's official languages, reflecting the Canada's early colonial history. Since the second half of the 18th century when the British ousted France from Canada, the country's main political and ethnic ties have been with the United Kingdom. Increased immigration from Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries boosted Canada's ethnic diversity, and since the 1970s, most immigrants have come from Asia.

Canada gained full independence in 1931, although it still is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It is both a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. Canada's official head of state is Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, although its citizens directly elect legislatures at the federal, provincial and territorial levels.

Manufacturing and resource-related industries are the foundation of Canada's economy. Transportation equipment is the leading manufacturing industry. However, most Canadians work in service occupations.

Saskatchewan is located in the heart of North America, between Manitoba on the east and Alberta to the west. The population is almost 1,000,000, including people from every country in the world and an aboriginal group. Saskatchewan produces 54 percent of the wheat grown in Canada. Besides agriculture, the largest sectors are service-based, including finance, insurance and real estate. The capital is Regina.

Education

Canada's educational system, along with the language of instruction - English or French - varies according to each province. There is no centralized education ministry. Instead, provincial governments administer education, although church-run schools exist throughout the provinces. In Saskatchewan, the language of instruction is English. The academic year lasts from September to June for elementary and secondary educational institutions, and while the academic year for most post-secondary institutions lasts from September to May. Saskatchewan's Ministry of Education oversees secondary education while their Ministry of Advanced Education oversees higher education.

Primary and Secondary Eduaction

Elementary Education is five years (plus one year of kindergarten) in length, for those between the ages of five and 11 (grades one through five).

Middle School Education is four years in length, covering ages 11 to 15 (grades six through nine). Senior Secondary Education is three years in length, involving students between the ages of 15 and 18 (grades ten through twelve). The Record of Secondary Level Standing (Secondary School Diploma) is awarded upon completion of Senior Secondary Education.

Post-Secondary Education

Higher education is provided by universities, regional colleges, private vocational schools, institutes of applied science and technology (SIAST) and other specialized institutions. The Department of Learning has responsibility for education at all levels. Universities offer undergraduate and graduate degrees. The Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies (SIIT), and SIAST deliver a wide range of Certificate and Diploma skill training programs intended to lead directly to employment. They offer one-year Certificate and two-year Diploma courses in the trades, technologies, service occupations, agriculture, health sciences (including nursing), business education, and natural resource extraction. SIAST delivers the technical component of apprenticeship training as well as an academic upgrading and literacy programs. Regional colleges offer both university and SIIT/SIAST credit courses through contracts with the credit-granting institutions.

First Cycle

Most undergraduate study leads to a Bachelor's Degree (minimum three or four years) or an "Honours" Degree (minimum four years) with a major subject concentration. Degrees are normally labeled in broad descriptive groups such as Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) and Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.). The first stage also includes undergraduate Diplomas (one-three years of study) and short (up to one year) special Certificate programs, frequently in close cooperation with professional bodies. Undergraduate professional programs that require no university-level pre-requisites, such as Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.), and Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.), require four years of study. Some first and second-year university courses are offered by the universities off-campus through provincially supported regional colleges and SIAST.

Second Cycle

The Master's Degree normally requires two years study after a Bachelor's Degree or equivalent. A thesis and course work are usually required. Examples are: Master of Arts (M.A.), Master of Science (M.Sc.), Master of Education (M.Ed.) and Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.). There are also graduate-level Diplomas (considered intermediate between the Bachelor's or first professional degree and the Master's Degree). Second-stage programs also include first professional degree programs requiring one to two years of prerequisite university studies, followed by three to four years, such as Bachelor of Law (LL.B.), Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.).

Third Cycle

The Doctorate is the highest academic qualification awarded by Canadian universities and in all provinces, except Quebec, comprises the third stage of university-level studies. This Degree normally requires at least three years of study after the Master's Degree; the submission and defense of a major thesis (dissertation) are the principal requirements, and supplemental course work. "Doctor of Philosophy" (Ph.D.) is the generic title used to signify the Doctorate Degrees in most disciplines. (The Doctorate should not be confused with titles attributed to certain first professional degrees in the Health Sciences, such as Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Dentistry.)

Teacher Training

Primary school teacher education may be obtained on campus at either of the province's two universities or off-campus through either the Northern Teacher Education Program (NORTEP for Northerners) or the Saskatchewan Urban Native Teacher Education Program (SUNTEP). Programs require at least four years of study (B.Ed.or B.A or equivalent degree) including at least 48 semester hours of professional education. Completion of an approved program will result in eligibility for a Professional "A" Certificate.

Training of secondary school teachers

Secondary school teacher education is offered on campus at either of the province's universities; off-campus through the Northern Teacher Education Program (NORTEP) or the Saskatchewan Urban Native Teacher Education Program (SUNTEP). Programs require at least four years of study (B.Ed. or B.A. or equivalent degree) including at least 48 semester hours of professional education. Completion of an approved program will result in eligibility for a Professional "A" Certificate. An off-campus program for Indian Teacher Education is offered by the Universities of Saskatchewan and Regina. The objective is to provide an opportunity for Northern residents - primarily Aboriginal - to become certified teachers.

Some university teachers and some teachers within SIAST, the regional colleges and the private vocational schools may have completed a teacher training program. The University of Regina's Faculty of Education technical-vocational program provides teacher training for individuals with work experience in a technical-vocational field. Many postsecondary teachers take advantage of professional development opportunities offered by both universities at centers to assist faculty members in improving their teaching skills.


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Crises as Catalysts for Transformation

Fall 2020 | virtual conference

Join us this fall for a virtual Strategic Enrollment Management Conference - Crises as Catalysts for Transformation: 2020’s Impact on Higher Education and Enrollment.

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March 28 - 31, 2021 | National Harbor, MD

AACRAO’s Annual Meeting is our largest convening of higher education professionals from around the world. Join more than 2,000 administrators in person or online as we work to address the issues facing today’s campuses, share goals and guidelines for meeting those challenges, and provide a forum for learning and sharing experiences.

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