The République Togolaise (Togolese Republic) is located in West Africa and is bordered by Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and the Gulf of Guinea. The population is 5,858,673 and the literacy rate is 60.9%. French is the official language and the language of instruction, but many African tribal languages are also spoken. There are 45 ethnic groups represented in the country with the majority being Ewe (46%), Kabyé (22%), and Uaci (14%).
Not much is known about the early history of present day Togo. During the 11th to 16th centuries, there was a great influx of tribes to the area. The Portuguese arrived in the late 15th century. In 1884, the area became a German protectorate and then became a German colony known as Togoland in 1905. After the defeat of Germany in World War I, Togoland was divided into two League of Nations mandates that were administered by France and England. After World War II, the mandates became United Nations Trust Territories. British Togoland voted to become part of Ghana and French Togoland became an autonomous republic in the French Union. In 1960, French Togoland gained independence from France and became known as the Togolese Republic.
The Ministère des enseignements primaire, secondaire et de la formation professionnelle is responsible for all education in Togo.
While education in Togo is compulsory from ages 5 to 15, beginning with kindergarten, the rates of attendance are quite low. Enseignement du Premier Degré (Elementary instruction) is offered at écoles primaires and is 6 years. Upon successful completion, students are awarded a Certificat d'Études du Premier Degré (CEPD).
Following elementary school, students are streamed into vocational/technical and general lower secondary schools. Vocational/technical lower secondary programs are offered at collèges d'enseignement technique (CET). These programs are 4 years and students are awarded, depending on the program of study, a Certificat d'Aptitude Professionnelle (CAP) or a Brevet d'Études Professionnelles (BEP).
Enseignement du Second Degré (general lower secondary school) is offered at collèges d'enseignement général. It is a 4-year program and upon successful completion, students are awarded a Brevet d'Études du Premier Cycle du Second Degré (BEPC).
L'Enseignement du Troisième Degré (Upper secondary school) is offered at lycées d'enseignement général and écoles secondaire technique ou enseignement technique cycle long and are open to students who have completed general lower secondary school. Upper secondary school is 3 years and has general and technical options. Upon completion of the 2nd year, students sit for the Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement Secondaire Premiere Partie and upon completion of the 3rd year, students sit for the Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement Secondaire Deuxième Partie. Students who complete all 3 years of upper secondary school, but do not sit for or do not pass the baccalauréat examination, are awarded a Certificat de Fin d'Études Secondaires.
There are 3 levels of post-secondary education in Togo. Post-secondary education is offered at the Université de Lomé (formerly known as the Université du Benin), and several schools. The Université de Kara recently opened and there is very little information about this university. Admission to post-secondary studies requires a Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement Secondaire Deuxième Partie.
The first level of post-secondary study is 2 years, and students in the sciences are awarded a Diplôme Universitaire d'Études Scientifiques (DUES), students in the Faculty of Arts are awarded a Diplôme Universitaire d'Études Littéraires (DUEL), or a Diplôme d'Études Universitaires Générales (DEUG). Students in technical areas of study are awarded a Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie (DUT) after 2 years of study or a Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur after 3 years of study. Students in architecture and engineering are awarded a Diplôme d'Ingenieur after 5 years of study. Students in medicine are awarded a Docteur en Médecine after 7 years of study.
The first diploma of second level studies is the licence which is a one-year program following a DUEL or a DEUG. The licence is a two-year program following a DUES. Students who have completed a DUT program can continue their studies in a one-year Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur Specialisé. The maîtrise is one-year following a licence.
Third level studies are one to two years and require a maîtrise for admission. Upon successful completion of coursework and defense of a thesis, students are awarded a Diplôme d'Études Supérieures Spécialisées (DESS) or a Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA). Doctoral studies are 2-3 years and require a DESS or a DEA for admission. Upon successful defense of a dissertation, students are awarded a Doctorat Unique. Engineering students are awarded a Doctorat ďIngénieur after 3 years of study following a Diplôme d'Ingenieur.
Primary school teachers are trained in a one-year program at the École Normale d'Instituteurs (ENI) and are awarded a Certificat de Fin d'Études Normales des Instituteurs (CFEN-ENI). A baccalauréat is required for admission to the ENI.
Lower secondary school teachers are trained at the École Normale Supérieure at the Université de Lomé. It is a 3-year program following the Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement Secondaire Premiere Partie or a 1-year program following a DEUG. Upon successful completion of the program, students are awarded a Certificat d'Aptitude au Professorat de ľEnseignement du Second Degré.
Upper secondary school teachers must hold a maîtrise.