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Montenegro

Overview

Црна Гора, Crna Gora (The Republic of Montenegro) is a country of 684,736 people in southeastern Europe on the Adriatic sea and bordered by Bosnia, Serbia, and Albania. Montenegrin is the official language, however Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are widely spoken.

Montenegro's history began in the 15th century, the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, it was a theocracy rule by bishop princes. By 1852, it had become a secular principality. Montenegro has its modern-day roots when it was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes that was formed in 1918. In 1929, its name was changed to Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia was under Nazi occupation from 1941-1945. Following the end of occupation, Communists gained control of the country under the leadership of Josip Tito. 1989, Slobodan Milosevic became president and called for Serbian domination of the country. This led to extreme violence and Yugoslavia was divided along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia followed by Bosnia in 1992. In April 1992, Serbia and Montenegro formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A 1998 insurgency by ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo resulted in Milosevic ordering massacres and expulsions in the region. The United Nations responded by sending in forces to maintain peace and safety in the regions. Milosevic lost the election in 2000 and in 2001 was arrested and transferred to The Hague for an international tribunal. In 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia became the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro. A referendum on independence in Montenegro in May 2006 passed and independence was declared on June 3, 2006.

Education

Compulsory education is nine years and begins at age 6. The language of instruction is Serbian, although in schools where there is a large majority of Albania students, Albanian is the language of instruction.

Primary and Secondary Education

Primary school consists of two, four-year cycles. 96% of primary school graduates continue on to secondary school. Secondary school is 4 years and admission is based on a national examination. There are both general and vocational secondary schools.

Gimnazije (gymnasiums) are the elite secondary schools and admission is very competitive. Students select a math/science track or a social science track, and all students in both tracks take a core group of subjects which include Serbian language, integrated science, mathematics and social studies. Strucna škola (Professional schools) prepare students for certain professions while offering a general education. Upon completion of secondary school, students sit for the Matura exam and are awarded the Diploma o Završenoj Srednjoj Školi.

There is also zanatska škola (3-year secondary school) that prepares students to go directly into the workforce. Students who complete this type of secondary school are awarded a Diploma o Treci Stepen. Students who hold this diploma are not eligible for admission to a university. If they wish to pursue university studies, they must complete the final year of secondary school.

There are proposals to reform primary and secondary education. Primary school will be divided into three, three-year cycles. In 2005-06, 27 primary schools implemented the new structure. Secondary schools will have a general education curriculum along with elective subjects and will be extended to 4 years.

Post-Secondary Education

Following secondary school, students have the option of continuing their education in više škole (higher schools) or universities. Više škole offer two- and three-year vocational and technical programs. Upon completion, students are awarded the Diploma Višeg Obrazovanja. There is one university, the Universitet Crne Gore (University of Montenegro). Admission is extremely competitive and is based on results of Diploma o Završenoj Srednjoj Školi and an entrance examination. Each university department has its own entrance examination.

First Cycle

The first level of university study is 3 years, depending on the area of study. Upon completion, students are awarded a Diploma Visokog Obrazovnaja.

Second Cycle

Following first level studies, students can enter a one-year specialist program or a two-year Masters program that is a minimum of two years. Masters students must complete coursework and defend a thesis, and are awarded a Magistar nauka or Magistar umetnosti.

Third Cycle

Doctoral studies require a Magistar nauka or Magistar umetnosti. There is no coursework required and students are evaluated on their published research and defense of a dissertation. Students are awarded a Doktor nauka.


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