2020 Census & Student Privacy

The 2020 Census count is critical for determining representation and the allocations of federally funded programs, including those in higher education. Historically, certain groups of people have been disproportionately undercounted by the Census. The U.S. Census Bureau identifies all college students as a hard-to-count population because they are highly mobile, may live off-campus as renters, and often difficult to persuade to participate.

The shift to distance learning due to the COVID-19 outbreak forced students living both on- and off-campus to return home, complicating this year's Census operations. Bureau representatives have begun their outreach to campuses and will continue over the next few months to verify and collect certain directory information on students in group living quarters, including college residence halls, as well as students living in non-college/university-owned housing.

FERPA generally permits such disclosures and we strongly urge all of our members to work with the Census Bureau to provide them with the particular directory information items it is seeking: name, address, and date of birth. However, because directory information must be limited to information that is not generally considered harmful or an invasion of privacy, it cannot include items such as social security numbers, race, gender, or ethnicity.

​AACRAO ​is engaged in conversations with the U.S. Census Bureau and the Student Privacy Office of the Department of Education to ​ensure that colleges and universities can assist in the collection and distribution of information related to students while also complying with long-standing student privacy requirements.

Executive Director Updates

AACRAO Takes the Lead for Higher Education to Ensure that the Census Does Not Overstep FERPA Regulations for Off-Campus Student Count | 06/18/2020

Mike Reilly discusses some concerns about what information institutions will be asked to provide as directory information.

  • Michael V. Reilly
  • AACRAO Guidance: The Census, Directory Information, and FERPA | 06/03/2020

    Mike Reilly discusses how institutions can work to provide the U.S. Census Bureau the relevant information needed to complete an accurate count.

  • Michael V. Reilly
  • U.S. Census Operation Update Webinar | 05/28/2020

    Mike Reilly discusses AACRAO's webinar with the U.S. Census Bureau, which provides updates on their modified data collection timeline, procedures, and field operations in light of the pandemic.

    2020 Census and FERPA FAQs

    Sample of Census Bureau responses to questions related to "Group Quarters Operations"
    • If a student has opted out of directory information, should that student's name appear on the roster?

      No, if a student has opted out of directory information, then that student’s name should not appear on the roster. The Census Bureau will request the room number for that student so that a package can still be prepared for that student.

    • What about international students?

      College students who are foreign citizens living in the United States while attending college in the United States (living either on-campus or off-campus)—Counted at the on-campus or off-campus U.S. residence where they live and sleep most of the time. If they are living in college/university student housing (such as dormitories or residence halls) on Census Day, they are counted at the college/university student housing. Therefore, these student should be included in the group quarters enumeration process.

      The goal of the U.S. Census Bureau is to conduct an enumeration of every person residing in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas (the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). The U.S. Constitution requires that the Census Bureau not just attempt to offer information or a service to the population (as is the case with other federal government programs like voter registration, Social Security enrollment, and the use of national parks), but that the Census Bureau actually reach and count every person living in the United States and its territories—of all ages, residence statuses, and locations—whether or not they desire to participate, and regardless of whether they are difficult to find, reach, and count.

    • How does this pertain to commuter campuses, i.e., campuses that do NOT have on-campus housing?

      These campuses have no obligation for the 2020 Census if they do not have student living in on campus or off campus housing. The students will be counted at their residence.

    • How will you determine which residence is correct for a student that is reported on campus and in their home state?

      The 2020 Census residence criteria are used to determine the correct residence for various residence situations such as described above. This is why it is important that the Census Bureau receive complete data to be able to perform critical matching. The more complete the information, e.g. legal first and last names or complete DOB (month, day, and year), the more confident Census can be that two records that are linked together are the same person.

    • If using e-response and race/ethnicity and gender information is not included, will the information be considered complete for upload?

      The information will be considered complete if you provide complete “directory information.” Information required to help with non-duplication include Name, DOB or Age, Address of usual home elsewhere (where they live while not at campus housing). The more complete the information, e.g. legal first and last names or complete DOB (month, day, and year), the more confident Census can be that two records that are linked together are the same person.

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    U.S. Grows More Diverse, Maryland's Public Institutions Follow Suit

    Sep 8, 2021, 19:34 PM
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    Summary : Maryland was one of two states whose population turned majority nonwhite over the past decade. Enrollment data for public colleges in the state show their student bodies mirror state demographics.
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    The 2020 Census data on race and ethnicity released last month showed that the share of white people in the United States dropped below 60 percent for the first time in the Census's history, reports The Chronicle of Higher Education.

    The state of Maryland experienced the largest increase (6.6 percentage points) in the Census Bureau's diversity index, which measures the probability that two people chosen at random will be from different racial and ethnic groups, reported the Chronicle. Maryland was also one of two states (the other was Nevada) whose population turned majority nonwhite over the last ten years.

    The Chronicle looked at federal enrollment data for public colleges in the state to see how closely their student bodies reflected the state's diversity. The study, in general, found that the demographics at the colleges mirrored state demographics. For example, at McDaniel College, the percentage of black students tripled to 21 percent since 2010, and the share of white students fell from 81.8 percent to 57.2 percent.  

    Morgan State and Coppin State Universities, both of which are historically black, were the only two institutions in the group that saw their share of white students increase (just barely from a base of less than 2 percent for both), the Chronicle reported.

    Most of the state's colleges' American Indian/Alaskan Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander student populations remained flat.

    The University of Maryland College Park has become more diverse over the last decade but lags behind the diversity of the state's population of traditional-age students, the Chronicle study found. Nearly one-third of 18-24 year-olds in the state were black in 2019; the share of black students at the university that same year was 11.5 percent.

    Related Link

    The Chronicle of Higher Education


    Heather Zimar
    Categories :
    • Advocacy
    • Enrollment Management
    • Industry News
    Tags :
    • adult students
    • census
    • Diversity
    • hbcu
    • MSI
    • Race
    • Race/Ethnicity Reporting
    • tribal colleges
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